ABOUT THE PROJECT
a new initiative of
In association with Dept. of Health, Govt. of Tripura
- The Discovery of Hepatitis B:
In 1980-81, Maurice Hilleman first discovered the plasma derived vaccine and was approved by FDA for human use in 1981. It was not very successful in the market place, because clinicians knew that it was a product from human blood source. Hilleman’s collaborators succeeded in 1986 in making the antigen in yeast. This vaccine is recombinant DNA vaccine. This is the vaccine still in use today. In 1991 Hepatitis B became part of the recommended immunization schedule in the United States and many other countries of the world.
- Hepatitis B Transmission:
- Hep B virus leading to Chronic Liver Disease:
If infection occurs during birth, 95% of the new born gets chronic liver disease, but 30% younger children can clear the virus and 95% of adults can do so.
It means mother to child transmission is the most dangerous, from transmissibility and disease Chronicity point of view.
Historical approach to Hepatitis B Vaccination:
- 1965: Hepatitis B virus discovered.
- 1982: Hepatitis B vaccine first became available.
- 1984: Taiwan launched first universal vaccination against Hepatitis-B.
- 1992: WHA resolution 45.17 called for member states, "…to integrate cost-effective new vaccines, such as Hep B, into national immunization programs in countries where it is feasible…"
- 1992: WHO recommended that all countries integrate hepatitis B (Hep B) vaccine into national immunization programs by 1997.
- 1998: WHO Conference Regarding Disease Elimination and Eradication as Public Health Strategies concludes hepatitis B ”a primary candidate for elimination or eradication”
- 2005: WPR sets goal of reducing chronic HBV infection rates to less than 2% among 5-year-old children by 2012.
- 2007: Over 88% of member states (171 out of 193) have introduced Hep B at birth vaccination in expanded program of immunization.
- 2007: Hep B-birth dose global coverage 27%, and Hep B3 coverage 65%.
- 2008: SAGE strongly recommends "all regions and associated countries develop goals for hepatitis B control appropriate to their epidemiologic situations". (1)
- 2010: World Health Organization declared “28th July” as World Hepatitis Day.
- Scientific Basis of Hepatitis B Vaccination at birth:
30% of hepatitis B infections are not associated with a known or disclosed high risk activity
- Scenario in India:
- Scenario in China & Taiwan:
On the contrary China, having the largest population of world introduced “At Birth vaccination” as early as 1990. In that year itself they have achieved 73.29% success rate. From 1999 they have started having >99% at birth vaccination and in 2009 they got 99.98% success. It shows a good Governmental policy can make the vaccination program most successful and ultimately can reduce the disease burden. Taiwan started at birth vaccination as early as 1984 & could reduce Hepatitis B infection from > 20 % to <2 % by 2000 AD. They have reduced the Liver Cancer drastically.
- In Tripura:
- At Birth Vaccination:
Vaccine, Syringe, Register and Card etc will be supplied by HFT to the respective Health Institutes.
- Financial Involvement:
1. First dose of Hepatitis B vaccine for child born in hospital will be given free of cost. This will involve an expenditure of Rs. 8 lac every year.
2. The second and third dose of vaccine (at 1 month & 6 month) will be given in Hepatitis Clinics of respective Hospital against a subsidized price of Rs. 20/-(Twenty) only per dose.
Awareness Generation & Help by BRISTOL MYERS SQUIBB FOUNDATION:
Hepatitis Foundation of Tripura will take all steps for awareness generation among all care providers & pregnant mother .International philanthropic organization BMSF promised to extend help for Awareness Generation but not for vaccination.
- Role of Govt. Of Tripura Govt of Tripura has issued necessary order & requested all Health Care Providers to participate in the program actively.